Творческая работа Лапыгиной Надежды, ученицы 11 гуманитарного класса. Блинова Е. Г., учитель английского языка icon

Творческая работа Лапыгиной Надежды, ученицы 11 гуманитарного класса. Блинова Е. Г., учитель английского языка



НазваниеТворческая работа Лапыгиной Надежды, ученицы 11 гуманитарного класса. Блинова Е. Г., учитель английского языка
Дата конвертации06.05.2013
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ТипТворческая работа
источник

МОУ «Восточно-Европейский лицей»


THE WORLD OF FAST FOOD


Мир фаст фуд


Творческая работа Лапыгиной Надежды,

ученицы 11 – гуманитарного класса.

Руководитель: Блинова Е. Г.,

учитель английского языка.


Саратов 2006


CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………….…..2


CHAPTER 1 WHAT MAKES FAST FOOD THE WORST DIET IN THE WORLD? .......... 3

CHAPTER 2 FAST FOOD INDUSTRY…………………………………………………..…...4

1. HISTORY…………………………………………………………………………………….4

2. STANDARDIZATION……………………………….………………………………..……..5 3. MARKETING………………………………………………………………………………...5

4. FRANCHISE………………………………………………………………………………….6

5. GROWTH……………………………………………………………………………………..6

CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………….……8

BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………………………9

SUPPLEMENT….. ……………………………………………………………………………10


2

INTRODUCTION


The problem of healthy lifestyle is discussed nowadays in medical journals, in popular magazines, on radio and television. It is discussed by common people and seems to be important for many people. I feel enthusiastic in researching the problem of fast food and healthy diet.

Till recently people used to say that money is the most valuable thing in their lives. It is common knowledge that money makes possible exchange and trade, it has some other very important functions but it cannot gave a person health unless one takes care of his / her health deliberately.

Our health depends on many factors: our lifestyle, the environment we live in, the health care system, hereditary diseases. There is one more not less important factor. It is a balanced diet. In other words one should eat food which contains something from each of the three groups of nutrients.

Carbohydrates provide our body with quick energy. Fat also gives us energy but it contains more than twice as many food calories. Proteins are the third group of nutrients that provide energy. Proteins make up much of the structure of cells. They are needed for the growth and repair of cells. Besides these nutrients our body needs water, minerals and vitamins.

Does fast food meet the requirements of a balanced diet?

Scientists have spent years researching the effects of fast food on human health. It is non-recommended for a number of serious reasons. For many people fast food has become symbol of fast-paced lifestyle that is neither natural nor healthy. And still fast food industry is flourishing in many countries.

There is a number of questions which I am going to answer in this paper:

  • What makes fast food the worst diet?

  • What was the beginning of fast food?

  • What helps fast food industry to succeed in the market?

  • What do fast food companies do to convince consumers that their food offers the best taste and value?

  • What makes it possible for fast food companies to create global chains of restaurants?



3

CHAPTER 1

^ WHAT MAKES FAST FOOD THE WORST DIET IN THE WORLD?


Scientists say that fast food industry has designed the worst diet in the world, one that would be most likely to undermine health and shorten life.

This food is stuffed with calories, more than people are able to burn off, so it promotes obesity. This diet is overloaded with carbohydrate calories from high-glycemic-index food. We know fast food restaurants offer lots of refined flour in fluffy breads and pastries, a lot of potatoes, sweets, and sweet drinks. People who eat in fast food restaurants gain weight because of a glut of saturated fat in the form of cheese, butter, cream, and other whole-milk products, along with a lot of beef and chicken. This ensures that most people develop unhealthy levels of cholesterol and great risks of cardiovascular disease. Fast food products also include plenty of hydrogenated fat in the form of margarine, vegetable shortenings, and snack foods with partially hydrogenated oils. As for protein, it should be noted that fast food industry uses commercially raised meat and poultry, though it is known that fish and vegetable protein is much healthier. In this case people intake drugs and hormones used to raise animals for meat as well as environmental toxins concentrated in their fat and other tissues. A lot of meat in the diet (hot dogs, lunch meat, and the like) gives a person more sodium and unhealthy chemical additives.

The worst diet in the world is also distinguished by what it does not provide. It does not provide a human organism with adequate amount of the micronutrients especially those that protect the body from obesity. It is so because the diet does not include enough greens, fruits and vegetables. Pickles, high in sodium, and ketchup, high in sugar and sodium can’t be count as vegetables. This diet prevents people form eating enough protective phytochemicals, gets levels of vitamins and minerals down low and causes suboptimal functioning of many systems of the body.

From what I know about scientific basis of human nutrition, I am sure that a diet of this sort, though it sustains life and growth, has tremendous consequences as people age. It increases the frequency of degenerative diseases, lowers the age at which they appear, and worsens their severity. Fast food promotes obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cancer. It affects liver, kidney, and brain function. It makes people less energetic and worsens their moods.


4

CHAPTER 2


^ FAST FOOD INDUSTRY


1. HISTORY

It was not until the 1920s that hamburgers became the centerpiece of a new marketing concept for American restaurants. Although the hamburger was not called “fast food” then, the first business that can accurately be called a fast food restaurant was White Castle (Kansas, 1921). It sold hamburgers for five cent each. Their burgers were different from today’s version: they were cooked with onions and they were smaller, so most customers ate more than one at a meal.

Other companies copied White Castle, they too offered the simple but seemingly irresistible combination of hamburger, French fries, and cola (their names were White Palace, White Tower, Royal Castle). Some of these companies introduced variations on the hamburger theme. A slice of cheese melted on top of the meat made the sandwich a cheeseburger. In late 1930s a California restaurant called Bob’s introduced a hamburger with two patties of meat and named it the Big Boy.

Perhaps the most unusual innovation in those early years of fast food was how the food was served at some of the new restaurants. A server or “carhop” brought the food outside to the customers so they could eat without leaving their cars. This type of “drive-in” service began in the 1920s. The idea was soon picked up by hamburger restaurants, and the fast food industry in America became closely associated with the automobile.

After World War II, the number of restaurants specialized in fast food grew tremendously, and each needed a special feature to survive in competitive marketplace. In the Sonic Drive-Ins, established in Oklahoma in 1953, the carhops wore roller skates. They still do today at some of the restaurants the company operates in 28 states. Hot dogs, pizza, fish and seafood, submarine sandwiches, roast beef sandwiches, donuts, salads…by the 1960s the fast food industry in the United States had grown to include these kinds of dishes and a very large and loyal clientele.

It is notable that White Castle (the first fast food restaurant) still exists. Its founders were business pioneers who once launched it which is today global fast food restaurant chains.


^ 5

2. STANDARDIZATION

No matter where fast food restaurants are located or what type of food they sell, their most fundamental operating principle is standardization. A hamburger from a Burger King in New York must taste the same as hamburger from a Burger King in Florida, or in Japan, Argentina, or Turkey. To succeed fast food restaurants must offer a standardized menu that limits the number of food choice.

A small selection of items on a menu makes preparing fast food convenient for restaurants because they need only a limited variety of ingredients though in huge quantities. The limited variety makes shipments of those ingredients also easy and convenient.

Anyone who has eaten at a fast food restaurant can appreciate the convenience of standardization. If the only problem is what type of pizza to order, whether or not to have pickles on a hamburger, or how many pieces of fried chicken to eat, then a decision is rather easy. For many people it is comforting when there aren’t very many choices. They know in advance what they will be eating and how it will taste. Although some people dislike fast food for its predictability, it can be convenient for a hungry person in a hurry or far from home.

This predictability is essential for a successful fast food company. If customers have a good meal at one restaurant, they will probably go to another restaurant of the same company. The predictability has been very important for the fast food business over the long term. It means that the same quality of food and service should be offered in all the restaurants that are part of a chain. Standardization is an advantage of the business but has nothing to do with tasty and healthy food or with the reputation of the company. Restaurants sell the same types of fast food. There is a question: how does one stand out of the rest? The innovators of fast food have developed the answer: aggressive advertising.

So, standardization is one answer to the question what helps fast food industry to succeed in the market. The other answer is aggressive advertising.


3. MARKETING

“We treat you right”. “Have it your way”. We love to see you smile”. “Your way, right way”. “What you want is what you get”. “Taste the difference fresh makes” “A fresh take on fresh taste”. These are a few of slogans various fast food companies have used over the years to attract customers. With the commercial broadcast accompanied with cheerful music on radio and television fast food companies rely on sophisticated marketing to convince consumers that their food offers the best taste and value, or is the most fun to eat.

Much of the marketing of fast food is specially targeted to children. Of course, the goal is for children to see a restaurant’s advertisements, then to persuade their parents to take them

6

there. Fast food restaurants frequently offer a free toy with every purchase. Another type of promotion is to offer a set of toys, which requires more than one purchase to get the complete set. Some companies have attractive playgrounds with swings, slides and balloons as a part of their restaurants, so children can eat and play at the same time.

To attract adults, fast food companies focus on value of food rather than on fun. Typical promotions are “Two for the price of one” or “Buy one at the regular price and get a second one free!” One company boasts that their hamburgers are tastier because they are charcoalbroiled, not fried. Another competitor claims that one of their sandwiches can be ordered in 1024 possible ways; a figure based on the number and combination of condiments available.

There have been many competitions at fast food restaurants. Prizes can range from a free hamburger or a drink to an all-expenses-paid vacation. Whether by gimmicks or giveaways, marketing in the fast food industry is pressing. This is another answer to the question what fast food companies do to convince consumers that their food offers the best taste and value.


4. FRANCHISE

Franchising is a feature of fast food companies that has created opportunities for individuals to own their own business. According to Webster’s Dictionary, a franchise is “a contract granted by a national or regional chain allowing one the exclusive right to operate one of outlets within a specified area… usually with the parent company furnishing equipment, supplies, merchandising, and advertising.” Individuals or groups, who franchise benefit from the reputation of the parent company and at the same time required to uphold the standards of the company.

To take one brand as an example, McDonald’s is an international chain with its headquarters in Oak Brook, Illinois. Each McDonald’s restaurant – there are 28,000 in 120 countries – is an outlet. People who own franchise of McDonald’s receive extensive training in food preparation, business management, and the daily operations of outlet. In the 1950s, when the first McDonald’s franchise was sold, the initial fee paid to the parent company was $950. To open a new McDonald’s outlet now costs between $450000 and $740000, depending on the size and location.

This is the answer to the question what makes it possible for fast food companies to create global chains of restaurants.


5. GROWTH

Fast food has grown remarkably, not only in the United States, but also around the world. Restaurant chains represent a multi-billion dollar industry that shows no sign of slowing down.

7

Innovations in operating products have kept the industry growing and led to speeding up the pace of life.

From its beginning, fast food has lived up to its name. In the early days of fast food, as Americans came to depend more on their cars, outlets offered drive-in service, enabled customers to park and eat in their cars. This service reduced the cost of operating a restaurant and established relatively low prices. There is the so called “drive up” (or “drive thru”) service. Customers can order, pay, and leave without turning off the motors of their cars. Many eat as they drive. First fast food was popular for lunch and dinner. But it was only a matter of time before marketers and franchisees realized that they could expand their line of products by offering breakfast, too. All the major fast food chains now sell breakfast to hungry people in a hurry. Chains have also found new markets other than the traditional roadside ones. Now we see fast food restaurants inside amusement parks, shopping centers, movie theatres, airports, schools, even in hospitals.

For many people fast food and a fast-paced way of life seem unacceptable, unnatural and unhealthy. An organization called Slow Food was established in Italy in 1986 to oppose fast food and its assembly-line approach to cooking and eating. The Slow Food manifesto, approved in Paris in 1989 by delegates from 15 countries, states, “We are enslaved by speed and have all succumbed to the same insidious virus: Fast Life, which disrupts our habits, pervades the privacy of our homes and forces us to eat Fast Foods.” To fight the negative connotation of fast food, many companies now emphasize the word “fresh” in their advertising and use the term “quick service” to describe their operations.


8

CONCLUSION


Human eating habits have changed more in the last 40 years that in the previous 40,000. Ninety percent of money Americans spend for food goes to processed food. And as American eating habits spread throughout the world, so did health problems. The fast food industry contributes to increased obesity, lowers the human age, leads to hypertension, coronary heart diseases, and cancer. It takes harmful effect on liver, kidney, and brain function.

It should be noted that an educated elite ignores fast food restaurants. For many people fast food has become the symbol of a fast-paced lifestyle that is neither natural nor healthy.

However, the hamburger has a status of the world’s favourite sandwich. It is obvious from the tens of thousands of fast food restaurants across the globe. Whether you prefer hamburgers over cheeseburgers, or another kind of fast food, whether you avoid fast food altogether, there is no denying that the hamburger and the advocates of fast food industry have changed the way a lot of people eat.

There is a debate over the history of the hamburger and who has invented it, but there is no disagreement about the strong global position that it has achieved over the past few decades as a result of the increase of the fast food industry. It seems surprising as most of hamburgers are remarkably similar: ground beef on a bun with spice, ketchup, mustard, and pickles. Though modest, even monotonous, this sandwich has become an icon among foods and a symbol of globalization of fast food.


9

BIBLIOGRAPHY


1. Nutrition Action Health Newsletter

http://www.findarticles.com/cf dis/m0813/9_26/57827152/p1/article.jhtml

2. Webster’s Dictionary. Coloring Book Promotions. Запорожье. 1993.

3. Andrew Weil. Eating Well for Optimum Health. M.D. Copy 2000

4. Schosser, E. 2001. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

5. Tennyson. J. 1993. Hamburger heaven: The Illustrated History of the Hamburger. New York: Hyperion.

6. Paulette C. Jordan. History of Hamburger. English Teaching Forum. 2002.


10

SUPPLEMENT


Nowadays fast food restaurants are widely spread throughout the cities of Russia. People evidently visit them rather regularly. Otherwise how could they succeed in the market? We have decided to find out our students’ attitude to fast food. So 50 students were offered to answer the following questions:

^ 1. Where do you prefer to spend your spare time?

a). at a night club

b). at cinema

c). at theatre

d) at a café

2. If you prefer to spend your spare time at a café, then say which of the following would you choose:

a). a traditional restaurant

b). a coffee house

c). a pizzeria

d). a fast food restaurant

^ 3. Have you ever visited fast food restaurants ( McDonald’s, Burgers Royal and others)?

a). yes

b). no

4. How often do you visit fast food restaurants?

a). every day

b). once a week

c). once a month

d). once a year

^ 5. How much money do you usually spend during your visit to a fast food restaurant?

a). less than 100 roubles

b). 100 – 200 roubles

c). 200 – 500 roubles

d). More than 500 roubles

6. Who do you go to fast food restaurants with?

a). alone

11

b). with your friends

c). with your family

^ 7. Do you like the food cooked at fast food restaurants?

a). yes

b). no

8. Have you ever thought of the negative influence of fast food on your health?

a). yes

b). no

9. Where have you got the information about the negative influence of fast food on your health?

a). from mass media

b). from parents

c). from your friends

d). from doctors

^ 10. Does your knowledge about the harm of fast food prevent you from visiting fast food restaurants?

a). yes

b). no


Below one can see the figures showing what the students’ answers are.

1. Where do you prefer to spend your spare time?

a). at a night club -2

b). at cinema - 11

c). at theatre - 7

d) at a café - 30

^ 2. If you prefer to spend your spare time at a café, then say witch of the following would you choose:

a). a traditional restaurant -5

b). a coffee house - 19

c). a pizzeria - 9

d). a fast food restaurant -17

3. Have you ever visited fast food restaurants ( McDonald’s, Burgers Royal and others)?

a). yes - 47

12

b). no - 3

^ 4. How often do you visit fast food restaurants?

a). every day

b). once a week -16

c). once a month - 24

d). once a year - 7

5. How much money do you usually spend during your visit of a fast food restaurant?

a). less than 100 roubles -7

b). 100 – 200 roubles - 25

c). 200 – 500 roubles - 12

d). More than 500 roubles - 3

^ 6. Who do you go to fast food restaurants with?

a). alone

b). with your friends - 41

c). with your family - 6

7. Do you like the food cooked at fast food restaurants?

a). yes - 36

b). no – 11

^ 8. Have you ever thought of the negative influence of fast food on your health?

a). yes - 36

b). no - 11

9. Where have you got the information about the negative influence of fast food on your health?

a). from mass media - 29

b). from parents - 8

c). from your friends - 10

d). from doctors

^ 10. Does your knowledge about the harm of fast food prevent you from visiting fast food restaurants?

a). yes - 20

b). no - 27


13

In the conclusion it should be said that:

30 % of the students prefer to visit fast food restaurants;

86 % of the students have visited fast food restaurants at least once;

32 % of the students visit fast food restaurants once a week;

48 % of the students visit fast food restaurants once a month;

14 % of the students visit fast food restaurants once a year;

14 % of the students spend less that 100 roubles per visit;

50 % of the students spend 100 – 200 roubles per visit;

24 % of the students spent more than 500 roubles;

82 % of the students go to fast food restaurants with friends;

12 % of the students go to fast food restaurants with their families;

72 % of the students like the food cooked at fast food restaurants;

22 % of the students do not like the food cooked at fast food restaurants;

72 % of the students think of the harm of fast food.

22 % of the students do not think of the harm of fast food.


From the figures above we can clearly see that the majority of the students (30 out of 50) prefer to spend their spare time at a cafe and more that half of them go to fast food restaurants. Practically every student has visited a fast food restaurant at least once. Almost half of them go to fast food restaurants regularly (once a week). Two thirds of the students like the food offered there. As we can see the majority of the students know about the bad influence of fast food on a person’s health but it evidently does not prevent them from visiting fast food restaurants.


^ ЧЕРНОВИК INTRODUCTION

The problem of healthy lifestyle is discussed nowadays in medical journals, in popular magazines, on radio and television. It is discussed by common people and seems to be important for many people. I feel enthusiastic in researching the problem of fast food and healthy diet.

Till recently people used to say that money is the most valuable thing in their lives. It is common knowledge that money makes possible exchange and trade, it has some other very important functions but it cannot gave a person health unless one takes care of his / her health deliberately. (осознанно)

Our health depends on many factors: our lifestyle, the environment we live in, the health care system, hereditary diseases. There is one more not less important factor. It is a balanced diet. In other words one should eat food which contains something from each of the three groups of nutrients.

Hereditary…………………………………………………….наследственный

Diseases………………………………………………………болезни

Nutrients……………………………………………………….питательные вещества

Carbohydrates provide our body with quick energy. Fat also gives us energy but it contains more than twice as many food calories. Proteins are the third group of nutrients that provide energy. Proteins make up much of the structure of cells. They are needed for the growth and repair of cells. Besides these nutrients our body needs water, minerals and vitamins.

Carbohydrates…………………………………………углеводы

Proteins…………………………………………………белки

make up ………………………………………………….составлять

cells………………………………………………………клетки

repair……………………………………………………..восстанавливать.

Does fast food meet the requirements of a balanced diet?

meet the requirements………………………………отвечать требованиям

Scientists have spent years researching the effects of fast food on human health. It is non-recommended for a number of serious reasons. For many people fast food has become symbol of fast-paced lifestyle that is neither natural nor healthy. And still fast food industry is flourishing in many countries.

fast-paced………………………………………………стремительный

is flourishing……………………………………………….процветает

There is a number of questions which I am going to answer in this paper:

  • What makes fast food the worst diet?

  • What was the beginning of fast food?

2

  • What helps fast food industry to succeed in the market? (преуспевать)

  • What do fast food companies do to convince consumers that their food offers the best taste and value?

to convince……………………………………………………..убеждать

consumers……………………………………………………..потребители

value……………………………………………………………ценность

  • What makes it possible for fast food companies to create global chains of restaurants?


CHAPTER 1

^ WHAT MAKES FAST FOOD THE WORST DIET IN THE WORLD?

Scientists say that fast food industry has designed the worst diet in the world, one that would be most likely to undermine health and shorten life.

most likely…………………………………………….наиболее вероятно

to undermine…………………………………………подрывать

This food is stuffed with calories, more than people are able to burn off, so it promotes obesity. This diet is overloaded with carbohydrate calories from high-glycemic-index food. We know fast food restaurants offer lots of refined flour in fluffy breads and pastries, a lot of potatoes, sweets, and sweet drinks. People who eat in fast food restaurants gain weight because of a glut of saturated fat in the form of cheese, butter, cream, and other whole-milk products, along with a lot of beef and chicken. This ensures that most people develop unhealthy levels of cholesterol and great risks of cardiovascular disease. Fast food products also include a lot of hydrogenated fat in the form of margarine, vegetable shortenings, and vegetable shortenings with partially hydrogenated oils. As for protein, it should be noted that fast food industry uses commercially raised meat and poultry, though it is known that fish and vegetable protein is much healthier. In this case people intake drugs and hormones used to raise animals for meat as well as environmental toxins concentrated in their fat and other tissues. A lot of meat in the diet (hot dogs, lunch meat, and the like) gives a person more sodium and unhealthy chemical additives.

is stuffed………………………………………….насыщена

it promotes………………………………………..способствует

obesity…………………………………………….ожирение

is overloaded……………………………………….перегружена

carbohydrate calories…………………………….углеводные калории

3

high-glycemic-index………………………………..

refined flour………………………………………….рафинированная, очищенная мука

fluffy breads and pastries…………………………мягкий хлеб и кондит изделия

gain weight………………………………………….набирают вес

a glut of saturated fat……………………………..переизбыток насыщенных жиров

This ensures………………………………………..это обеспечивает

Cholesterol……………………………………………холестерин

cardiovascular disease………………………………..сердечно-сосудистые болнзни

hydrogenated fat……………………………………гидрогенизированные жиры

margarine……………………………………………..маргарин

vegetable shortenings………………………………..растительное масло

partially hydrogenated oils………………………….частично

it should be noted that………………………………..следует отметить

commercially raised meat and poultry…………….

intake drugs and hormones……………………………поглощать лекрств ср-ва,гормоны

tissues……………………………………………………ткани

sodium……………………………………………………натрий,соль

additives…………………………………………………пищевые добавки


The worst diet in the world is also distinguished by what it does not provide. It does not provide a human organism with adequate amount of the micronutrients especially those that protect the body from obesity. It is so because the diet does not include enough greens, fruits and vegetables. Pickles, high in sodium, and ketchup, high in sugar and sodium can’t be count as vegetables. This diet prevents people form eating enough protective phytochemicals, gets levels of vitamins and minerals down low and causes suboptimal functioning of many systems of the body.

is distinguished……………………………………отличается

provide………………………………………………обеспечивать

adequate…………………………………………….достаточный

amount………………………………………………количество

micronutrients……………………………………..микроэлементы

obesity……………………………………………….ожирение

Pickles……………………………………………….солен огурцы

Sodium……………………………………………….соль

4

be count………………………………………………считается

prevent………………………………………………..

protective phytochemicals…………………………….защитные

suboptimal………………………………………………субоптимальный


From what I know about scientific basis of human nutrition, I am sure that a diet of this sort, though it sustains life and growth, has tremendous consequences as people age. It increases the frequency of degenerative diseases, lowers the age at which they appear, and worsens their severity. Fast food promotes obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cancer. It affects liver, kidney, and brain function. It makes people less energetic and worsens their moods.

Nutrition……………………………………………..питание

Sustain………………………………………………..поддерживать

Tremendous…………………………………………..ужасный

Consequences………………………………………..последствия

Increase………………………………………………увеличение, рост

the frequency…………………………………………частотность

degenerative………………………………..............вырождение

worsen……………………………………………….. ухудшение

severity…………………………………………………тяжесть

promotes obesity…………………………………….способствует ожирению

hypertension…………………………………………повышенное давление

coronary……………………………………………..коронарный

liver…………………………………………………….печень

kidney……………………………………………………почки

CHAPTER 2

^ FAST FOOD INDUSTRY

1. HISTORY

It was not until the 1920s that hamburgers became the centerpiece of a new marketing concept for American restaurants. Although the hamburger was not called “fast food” then, the first business that can accurately be called a fast food restaurant was White Castle (Kansas, 1921). It sold hamburgers for five cent each. Their burgers were different from today’s version: they were cooked with onions and they were smaller, so most customers ate more than one at a meal.

5

accurately безошибочно onion лук customer посетители

Other companies copied White Castle, they too offered the simple but irresistible combination of hamburger, French fries, and cola (their names were White Palace, White Tower, Royal Castle). Some of these companies introduced variations on the hamburger theme. A slice of cheese melted on top of the meat made the sandwich a cheeseburger. In late 1930s a California restaurant called Bob’s introduced a hamburger with two patties of meat and named it the Big Boy.

Irresistible………………………………………………….неотразимый

Slice………………………………………………………..кусочек

Melted……………………………………………………….расплавленный

patties of meat………………………………………………пирожок

Perhaps the most unusual innovation in those early years of fast food was how the food was served at some of the new restaurants. A server or “carhop” brought the food outside to the customers so they could eat without leaving their cars. This type of “drive-in” service began in the 1920s. The idea was soon picked up by hamburger restaurants, and the fast food industry in America became closely associated with the automobile.

Associated………………………………………….ассоциируется

After World War II, the number of restaurants specialized in fast food grew tremendously, and each needed a special feature to survive in competitive marketplace. In the Sonic Drive-Ins, established in Oklahoma in 1953, the carhops wore roller skates. They still do today at some of the restaurants. The company operates in 28 states. Hot dogs, pizza, fish and seafood, submarine sandwiches, roast beef sandwiches, donuts, salads…by the 1960s the fast food industry in the United States had grown to include these kinds of dishes and a very large and loyal clientele.

Tremendously…………………………………………ужасно, крайне

to survive ………………………………………………выжить

competitive …………………………………………….конкурентный

established………………………………………………основывать

donuts ……………………………………………………пончики

loyal clientele……………………………………………преданный клиент


It is notable that White Castle (the first fast food restaurant) still exists. Its founders were business pioneers who once launched it which is today global fast food restaurant chains.

Launch……………………………………………………..начать

6

2. STANDARDIZATION

No matter where fast food restaurants are located or what type of food they sell, their most fundamental operating principle is standardization. A hamburger from a Burger King in

New York must taste the same as hamburger from a Burger King in Florida, or in Japan, Argentina, or Turkey. ^ To succeed fast food restaurants must offer a standardized menu that limits the number of food choice.

No matter………………………………………………………не важно

are located ……………………………………………………расположены

fundamental ……………………………………………………основной

To succeed…………………………………………………..иметь успех

A small selection of items on a menu makes preparing fast food convenient for restaurants because they need only a limited variety of ingredients though in huge quantities. The limited variety makes shipments of those ingredients also easy and convenient.

Anyone who has eaten at a fast food restaurant can appreciate the convenience of standardization. If the only problem is what type of pizza to order, whether or not to have pickles on a hamburger, or how many pieces of chicken to eat, then a decision is rather easy. For many people it is comforting when there aren’t very many choices. They know in advance what they will be eating and how it will taste. Although some people dislike fast food for its predictability, it can be convenient for a hungry person in a hurry or far from home.

appreciate ………………………………………………оценить

pickles…………………………………………………….соленые огурцы

in advance…………………………………………………заранее

predictability…………………………………………….пребсказуемость

This predictability is essential for a successful fast food company. If customers have a good meal at one restaurant, they will probably go to another restaurant of the same company. Standardization is an advantage of the business but has nothing to do with tasty and healthy food or with the reputation of the company. Restaurants sell the same types of fast food. There is a question: how does one stand out of the rest? The innovators (новаторы) of fast food have developed the answer: aggressive advertising.

So, standardization is one answer to the question what helps fast food industry to succeed in the market. The other answer is aggressive advertising.

Predictability…………………………………………предсказуемость

essential ………………………………………………существенный

an advantage…………………………………………..преимущество

7

has nothing to do with………………………………не имеет ничего общего

3. MARKETING

“We treat you right”. “Have it your way”. “We love to see you smile”. “Your way, right way”. “What you want is what you get”. “Taste the difference fresh makes” “A fresh take on fresh taste””. These are a few of slogans various fast food companies have used over the years to attract customers. With the commercial broadcast accompanied (сопровождаемый) with cheerful music on radio and television fast food companies rely on sophisticated marketing to convince consumers that their food offers the best taste and value, or is the most fun to eat.

slogans ……………………………………………………..девиз

commercial broadcast…………………………………….реклама

rely on …………………………………………………….полагаться на

sophisticated…………………………………………..фальсифицированный

to convince ……………………………………………..убедить

value……………………………………………………….ценность

Much of the marketing of fast food is specially targeted to children. Of course, the goal is for children to see a restaurant’s advertisements, then to persuade their parents to take them there. Fast food restaurants frequently offer a free toy with every purchase. Another type of promotion is to offer a set of toys, which requires more than one purchase to get the complete set. Some companies have attractive playgrounds with swings, slides and balloons as a part of their restaurants, so children can eat and play at the same time.

is targeted…………………………………………нацелен

the goal………………………………………………цель

to persuade………………………………………….убедить

frequently ………………………………………….часто

purchase. …………………………………………….покупка

complete set…………………………………………полный набор

promotion……………………………………………стимулирование

requires ………………………………………………требует

swings ………………………………………………..качели

slides……………………………………………………катки

To attract adults, fast food companies focus on value of food rather than on fun. Typical promotions are “Two for the price of one” or “Buy one at regular price and get a second one free!” One company boasts that their hamburgers are tastier because they are charcoalbroiled, not fried. Another competitor claims that one of their sandwiches can be ordered in 1024

8

possible ways; a figure based on the number and combination of condiments available. There are many competitions at fast food restaurants. Prizes can range from a free hamburger to an all-expenses-paid vacation. Whether by gimmicks or giveaways, marketing in

the fast food industry is pressing. This is another answer to the question what fast food companies do to convince consumers that their food offers the best taste and value.

focus …………………………………………………….сосредотачиваться

boast……………………………………………………хвастать

charcoalbroil…………………………………………….готовить на углях

fry………………………………………………………..жарить

competitor……………………………………………….конкурент

condiments………………………………………………приправа

range ………………………………………………быть в пределах

an all-expenses-paid vacation…………………..турпутевка полн. оплаченная

gimmicks …………………………………………….трюки, уловки

giveaways…………………………………………….проданное по низкой цене


4. FRANCHISE (лицензия на продажу товара в опред. районе)

Franchising is a feature of fast food companies that created opportunities for individuals to own their own business. According to Webster’s Dictionary, a franchise is “a contract granted by a national or regional chain allow one the exclusive right to operate one of outlets within a specified area… usually with the parent company furnishing equipment, supplies, merchandising, and advertising.” Individuals who franchise benefit from the reputation of the parent company.

Franchising ………………………………… специальный вид лицензирования, когда компания-владелец известной торговой марки предоставляет другой компании право ставить эту марку на свою продукцию .(договор - франшиза)

Grant…………………………………………….дотация, субсидия

Opportunities……………………………………возможность

outlets …………………………………………..торговая точка

supplies ………………………………………..снабжение

merchandising ………………………………..сбыт

franchise………………………………………..получать лицензию

benefit…………………………………………..получать выгоду


9

To take one brand as an example, McDonald’s is an international chain with its headquarters in Oak Brook, Illinois. Each McDonald’s restaurant – there are 28,000 in 120 countries – is an outlet. People who own franchise of McDonald’s receive extensive training in food preparation, business management, and daily operations of outlet. In the 1950s, when the first McDonald’s franchise (франшиза), was sold, the initial fee paid to the parent company was $950. To open a new McDonald’s outlet now costs between $450000 and $740000, depending on the size and location.

This is the answer to the question what makes it possible for fast food companies to create global chains of restaurants.

Headquarters……………………………………….штаб-квартиры

extensive training………………………………….всестороннее обучение

initial…………………………………………………..начальныйl

fee……………………………………………………….цена

location………………………………………………….место

5. GROWTH

Fast food has grown remarkably, not only in the United States, but also around the world. Restaurant chains represent a multi-billion dollar industry that shows no sign of slowing down. Innovations in operating and products have kept the industry growing and led to speeding up the pace of life.

Remarkably……………………………………………………значительно

shows no sign of slowing down………………………………нет признаков замедления

innovations …………………………………нововведения

pace…………………………………………………………….скорость

From its beginning, fast food has lived up to its name. In the early days of fast food, as Americans came to depend more on their cars, outlets offered drive-in service, enabled customers to park and eat in their cars. This service reduced the cost of operating a restaurant and established relatively low prices. There is the so called “drive up” (or “drive thru”) service. Customers can order, pay, and leave without turning off the motors of their cars. Many eat as they drive. First, fast food was popular for lunch and dinner. But it was only a matter of time before marketers and franchisees realized that they could expand their line of products by offering breakfast, too. All the major fast food chains now sell breakfast to hungry people in a hurry. Chains have also found new markets other than the traditional roadside ones. Now we see fast food restaurants inside amusement parks, shopping centers, movie theatres, airports, schools, even in hospitals.

10

has lived up to…………………………..действовать, жить согласно принципам

enabled……………………………………давать возможность

reduced……………………………………….сокращать

established…………………………………… установить

a matter of time…………………………………………….дело времени

expand ………………………………………….расширить


For many people fast food and a fast-paced way of life seem unacceptable, unnatural and unhealthy. An organization called Slow Food was established in Italy in 1986 to oppose fast food and its assembly-line approach to cooking and eating. The Slow Food manifesto, approved in Paris in 1989 by delegates from 15 countries, states, “We are enslaved by speed and have all succumbed to the same insidious virus: Fast Life, which disrupts our habits, pervades the privacy of our homes and forces us to eat Fast Foods.” To fight the negative connotation of fast food, many companies now emphasize the word “fresh” in their advertising and use the term “quick service” to describe their operations.

Unacceptable………………………………………………….неприемлемый

to oppose………………………………………………………противопоставлять

assembly-line…………………………………………………конвейер

approach to…………………………………………………..подход к

succumbed…………………………………………………….стать жертвой

insidious……………………………………………………….коварный

disrupt………………………………………………………..разрушать

pervade………………………………………………………проникать

connotation………………………………………………….смысл, содержание


CONCLUSION

Human eating habits have changed more in the last 40 years that in the previous 40,000. Ninety percent of money Americans spend for food goes to processed food. And as American eating habits spread throughout the world, so did health problems. The fast food industry contributes to increased obesity, lowers the human age, leads to hypertension, coronary heart diseases, and cancer. It takes harmful effect on liver, kidney, and brain function.

Previous…………………………………………..предыдущий

processed food…………………………………….бакалейные товары

contribute…………………………………………вносить вклад

11

increased obesity………………………………….растущее ожирение

hypertension ………………………………………гипертония

coronary…………………………………………..коронарный

It should be noted that an educated elite ignores fast food restaurants. For many people fast food has become symbol of a fast-paced lifestyle that neither natural nor healthy.

However, the hamburger has a status of the world’s favourite sandwich. It is obvious from the tens of thousands of fast food restaurants across the globe. Whether you prefer hamburgers over cheeseburgers, or another kind of fast food, whether you avoid fast food altogether, there is no denying that the hamburger and the advocates of fast food industry have changed the way a lot of people eat.

obvious ………………………………………………….очевидный

avoid………………………………………………………избегать

altogether…………………………………………………все равно

no denying ……………………………………………..нельзя отрицать

advocates…………………………………………………защитники

There is a debate over the history of the hamburger and who has invented it, but there is no disagreement about the strong global position that it has achieved over the past few decades as a result of the increase of the fast food industry. It seems surprising as most of hamburgers are remarkably similar: ground beef on a bun with spice, ketchup, mustard, and pickles. Though modest, even monotonous, this sandwich has become an icon among foods and a symbol of globalization of fast food.


^ 1 (ОЛЯ)

PRESENTATION

The problem of healthy ‘lifestyle is discussed nowadays in medical and popular magazines, on radio and television. I would like to think over the problem of fast food and healthy diet.

Our health depends on many factors. One of them is a balanced diet. In other words we should eat food which contains carbohydrates [ ], fat and proteins [ ].

Carbohydrates provide our body with quick energy. Fat also gives us energy but it contains more than twice as many food calories. Proteins also provide energy. Proteins make up much of the structure of cells. Besides these nutrients our body needs water, minerals and vitamins.

Scientists have spent years researching the effects of fast food on human health. It is non-recommended for a number of reasons. And still fast food industry is successful in many countries.

There are a few of questions which I am going to answer in this paper:

  • What makes fast food the worst diet?

  • What was the beginning of fast food?

  • What helps fast food industry to succeed in the market?

  • What do fast food companies do to convince (убедить) consumers that their food offers the best taste and value?

  • What makes it possible for fast food companies to create (создавать) global chains of restaurants?

Fast food industry produce the worst diet in the world. It undermines health and shortens life.

This food is full of calories, so it promotes obesity. We know fast food restaurants offer lots of cleaned flour in breads and pastries [‘peistriz], a lot of potatoes, and sweet drinks. People gain ( ) weight because of saturated [ ] fat in the form of cheese, butter, cream, and other whole-milk products, a lot of beef and chicken. People develop unhealthy levels of cholesterol [ ] and risks of heart disease. Fast food products also include a lot of fat in the form of margarine [ ] and vegetable shortenings. As for protein fast food industry uses commercially grown meat and poultry [ ]. In this case people intake drugs and hormones [ ] used to grow animals for meat.

Fast food is the worst diet because it does not provide a human organism with micronutrients, it does not include enough greens, fruits and vegetables, vitamins and minerals.


2

Pickles are high in sodium [ ]. Ketchup is high in sugar and sodium. They can’t be count as vegetables.

From what I know about healthy human nutrition, I am sure that a diet of this sort can sustain life and growth. But has terrible after-effects [ ] on people age. It affects liver, kidney, and brain function.

Hamburgers appeared in American restaurants in the 1920s. The first business that can be called a fast food restaurant was White Castle (Kansas, 1921).

Other companies copied [o] White Castle; they too offered the simple combination of hamburger, French fries, and cola. A slice ( ) of cheese melted on top of the meat made the sandwich a cheeseburger.

Perhaps the most unusual innovation in those years of fast food was how the food was served at restaurants. A server or “carhop” brought the food outside to the customers so they could eat without leaving their cars. The idea was picked up by hamburger restaurants, and the fast food industry in America became connected with the automobile.

After World War II, the number of restaurants specialized in fast food grew very quickly, and each needed a special element to be successful in the market. In the Sonic Drive-Ins, in Oklahoma in 1953, the carhops wore roller skates. Hot dogs, pizza, fish and seafood, roast beef sandwiches, salads…by the 1960s the fast food industry in the United States included these kinds of food and a very large and loyal clientele [ ].

No matter where fast food restaurants are situated their most basic operating principle is standardization [ ]. A hamburger from a Burger King in New York must taste the same as hamburger from a Burger King in Florida. To succeed fast food restaurants must offer a standardized menu that limits the number of food choice.

A small choice of food on a menu [ ] makes preparing fast food convenient for restaurants because they need only a limited assortment of ingredients. The limited assortment makes shipments of those ingredients also easy and convenient.

For many people it is comforting when there aren’t very many choices. They know in advance ( ) what they will eat and how it will taste.

This predictability is important for a successful fast food company. If customers have a good meal at one restaurant, they will go to another restaurant of the same company.

So, standardization is one answer to the question what helps fast food industry to succeed in the market. The other answer is aggressive marketing.


3

“We love to see you smile”. “Your way, right way”. These are a few of slogans fast food companies use to attract ( ) customers. Fast food companies use sophisticated marketing to convince ( ) consumers that their food offers the best taste and value.

Much of the marketing of fast food is specially targeted ( ) to children. The aim is to attract children who will convince their parents to take them there. Fast food restaurants often offer a free toy with every buy. Some companies have attractive playgrounds with swings and balloons, so children can eat and play at the same time.

To attract adults, fast food companies focus on value (рыночная цена) of food. A typical slogan is “Two for the price of one”. There are many competitions at fast food restaurants. Prizes can range from a free hamburger to an all-expenses-paid vacation. Whether by tricks or giveaways, marketing in the fast food industry is aggressive. This is another answer to the question what fast food companies do to convince consumers that their food offers the best taste and value.


Franchising is a feature of fast food companies that made it possible for individuals to own their own business. According to Webster’s Dictionary, a franchise is “a contract granted by a national … chain allowing one the exclusive right to operate one of outlets within a specified area… usually with the parent company furnishing equipment, supplies, and advertising.”

To take one brand as an example, McDonald’s is an international chain. Each McDonald’s restaurant (there are 28,000 in 120 countries) is an outlet.

This is the answer to the question what makes it possible for fast food companies to create global chains of restaurants.


Fast food has grown really, not only in the United States, but also around the world. Restaurant chains are a multi-billion dollar industry that shows no sign of slowing down.

Innovations in operating and products have kept the industry growing and led to speeding up the pace of life.

There is the so called “drive up” (or “drive thru”) service. Customers can order, pay, and leave without turning off the motors of their cars. Many eat as they drive. First fast food was popular for lunch and dinner. But they realized that they could offer breakfast, too. Fast food chains now sell breakfast to hungry people in a hurry. Chains have also found new markets. Now we see fast food restaurants inside amusement parks, shopping centers, movie theatres, airports, schools, even in hospitals.

4

.

For many people fast food and a fast-paced way of life seem unnatural and unhealthy. An organization called Slow Food was founded in Italy in 1986 to be against fast food and its assembly-line approach to cooking and eating. The Slow Food manifesto, approved in Paris in 1989 by delegates from 15 countries, states: “We are enslaved by speed and have all succumbed to the same … virus [ ]: Fast Life, which … forces us to eat Fast Foods.” To fight the negative connotation of fast food, many companies now stress the word “fresh” in their marketing and use the term “quick service” to describe their operations.


In the conclusion I would like to say that human eating habits have changed more in the last 40 years than in the previous 40,000. And as American eating habits spread throughout the world, so did health problems. Fast food provides obesity, lowers the human age, leads to hypertension, heart diseases, and cancer. It effects liver, kidney, and brain function.

An educated elite ignores fast food restaurants. For many people fast food has become a symbol of a fast-paced lifestyle that is unnatural and unhealthy.


Nowadays fast food restaurants come to the cities of Russia. People visit them rather regularly. We have decided to find out our students’ attitude ( ) to fast food. So, 50 students were offered to answer 10 questions about their attitude to fast food.

From the answers we have learnt that 30 students out of 50 prefer to spend their free time at a cafe and more that half of them go to fast food restaurants. Practically every student has visited a fast food restaurant at least once. Almost half of them go to fast food restaurants regularly (once a week). Two thirds of the students like the food offered there. As we can see the students know about the bad effect of fast food on a person’s health but unfortunately it does not prevent them from visiting fast food restaurants.


Thank you for attention!



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