Terrorism автор: Кузеванов Игорь, 11 «В» класс, мбоу сош №67 Ваторопина Елена Васильевна, учитель английского языка мбоу сош №67 Екатеринбург 2013 contents icon

Terrorism автор: Кузеванов Игорь, 11 «В» класс, мбоу сош №67 Ваторопина Елена Васильевна, учитель английского языка мбоу сош №67 Екатеринбург 2013 contents



НазваниеTerrorism автор: Кузеванов Игорь, 11 «В» класс, мбоу сош №67 Ваторопина Елена Васильевна, учитель английского языка мбоу сош №67 Екатеринбург 2013 contents
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Муниципальное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение Средняя общеобразовательная школа № 67

c углубленным изучением отдельных предметов


TERRORISM


Автор:

Кузеванов Игорь,

11 «В» класс, МБОУ СОШ № 67

Руководитель: Ваторопина Елена Васильевна,

учитель английского языка

МБОУ СОШ № 67


Екатеринбург

2013

CONTENTS


Introduction………………………………………………………………….3

Theoretical aspects…………………………………………………………..4

I. Definition………………………………….………………………....4

II. History in brief……………………………………………….……..13

III. Terrorism in modern world………………………………………..23

IV.Anti-terrorism…………………………………………………..….28

Investigation…………………………………………………………..……40

Programme of the investigation………………………………….……40

Test…………………………………………………………………….41

Questioning 1…………………………………………………..……...48

Questioning 2………………………………………………….………54

Investigation’s results……………………………………………...…60

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………61

Literature…………………………………………………………………..62

INTRODUCTION

In light of the events of 11 September, the war on terrorism has been given centre stage in efforts to guarantee not only national but also the entire system of international security. Many countries continue to fully support the international community’s efforts in that regard, unequivocally condemning terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, irrespective of its political, economic, religious or other motives. However, the war on terrorism should not be used to target any particular religion or culture.

As terrorism increasingly acquires the proportions of a global threat, it becomes imperative for the international community to join forces to meet the challenge by adopting a unified approach, not merely by pursuing individual States’ interests. I’m of the view that international counter-terrorism efforts over the long term should target not so much individual terrorist organizations, groups and individuals but rather the root causes of terrorism. Terrorist acts — a form of politically motivated extremism — all share one characteristic, namely the use of violence for political ends.

Terrorism is closely related to aggressive separatism, organized crime and trafficking in drugs, weapons and human beings. Areas of armed conflict, especially in occupied and uncontrolled territories, constitute fertile soil for terrorist and criminal groupings to flourish.

So the main objects of my project are:

  • to learn theoretical aspects of terrorism;

  • to hold the investigation using such methods as testing and questioning my classmates.

To achieve these aims I should learn a great amount of information from Internet, books and periodicals.


THEORETICAL ASPECTS


I. DEFINITION
^

Official definitions


The word "terrorism" was first used in reference to the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. A 1988 study by the United States Army found that more than one hundred definitions of the word exist and have been used. In many countries, acts of terrorism are legally distinguished from criminal acts done for other purposes, and "terrorism" is defined by statute; see definition of terrorism for particular definitions. Common principles among legal definitions of terrorism provide an emerging consensus as to meaning and also foster cooperation between law enforcement personnel in different countries. Among these definitions there are several that do not recognize the possibility of legitimate use of violence by civilians against an invader in an occupied country and would, thus label all resistance movements as terrorist groups. Others make a distinction between lawful and unlawful use of violence. Ultimately, the distinction is a political judgment.

In November 2004, a United Nations Security Council report described terrorism as any act "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act." (Note that this report does not constitute international law.)
^

Key criteria


Official definitions determine counter-terrorism policy and are often developed to serve it. Most government definitions outline the following key criteria: target, objective, motive, perpetrator, and legitimacy or legality of the act. Terrorism is also often recognizable by a following statement from the perpetrators.

Violence – According to Walter Laqueur of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, "the only general characteristic of terrorism generally agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence." However, the criterion of violence alone does not produce a useful definition, as it includes many acts not usually considered terrorism: war, riot, organized crime, or even a simple assault. Property destruction that does not endanger life is not usually considered a violent crime, but some have described property destruction by the Earth Liberation Front and Animal Liberation Front as violence and terrorism; see eco-terrorism.

^ Psychological impact and fear – The attack was carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact. Each act of terrorism is a “performance,” devised to have an impact on many large audiences. Terrorists also attack national symbols to show their power and to shake the foundation of the country or society they are opposed to. This may negatively affect a government's legitimacy, while increasing the legitimacy of the given terrorist organization and/or ideology behind a terrorist act.

^ Perpetrated for a Political Goal – Something all terrorist attacks have in common is their perpetration for a political purpose. Terrorism is a political tactic, not unlike letter writing or protesting, that is used by activists when they believe no other means will effect the kind of change they desire. The change is desired so badly that failure is seen as a worse outcome than the deaths of civilians. This is often where the interrelationship between terrorism and religion occurs. When a political struggle is integrated into the framework of a religious or "cosmic"struggle, such as over the control of an ancestral homeland or holy site such as Israel and Jerusalem, failing in the political goal (nationalism) becomes equated with spiritual failure, which, for the highly committed, is worse than their own death or the deaths of innocent civilians.

^ Deliberate targeting of non-combatants – It is commonly held that the distinctive nature of terrorism lies in its intentional and specific selection of civilians as direct targets. Much of the time, the victims of terrorism are targeted not because they are threats, but because they are specific "symbols, tools, animals or corrupt beings" that tie into a specific view of the world that the terrorist possess. Their suffering accomplishes the terrorists' goals of instilling fear, getting a message out to an audience, or otherwise accomplishing their political end.

Disguise – Terrorists almost invariably pretend to be non-combatants, hide among non-combatants, fight from in the midst of non-combatants, and when they can, strive to mislead and provoke the government soldiers into attacking the wrong people, that the government may be blamed for it. When an enemy is identifiable as a combatant, the word terrorism is rarely used. Mass executions of hostages, as by the Nazi military forces in the Second World War, certainly constituted crimes against humanity but are not commonly called terrorism.

^ Unlawfulness or illegitimacy – Some official (notably government) definitions of terrorism add a criterion of illegitimacy or unlawfulness to distinguish between actions authorized by a "legitimate" government (and thus "lawful") and those of other actors, including individuals and small groups. Using this criterion, actions that would otherwise qualify as terrorism would not be considered terrorism if they were government sanctioned. For example, firebombing a city, which is designed to affect civilian support for a cause, would not be considered terrorism if it were authorized by a "legitimate" government. This criterion is inherently problematic and is not universally accepted, because: it denies the existence of state terrorism; the same act may or may not be classed as terrorism depending on whether its sponsorship is traced to a "legitimate" government; "legitimacy" and "lawfulness" are subjective, depending on the perspective of one government or another; and it diverges from the historically accepted meaning and origin of the term. For these reasons this criterion is not universally accepted. Most dictionary definitions of the term do not include this criterion.




Pejorative use


The terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" (someone who engages in terrorism) carry a strong negative connotation. These terms are often used as political labels to condemn violence or threat of violence by certain actors as immoral, indiscriminate, or unjustified. Those labeled "terrorists" rarely identify themselves as such, and typically use other euphemistic terms or terms specific to their situation, such as: separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel, jihadi or mujaheddin, or fedayeen, or any similar-meaning word in other languages.

The difference between the words "terrorist" or "terrorism" and the terms above can be summed up by the aphorism, "One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter." This is exemplified when a group that uses irregular military methods is an ally of a State against a mutual enemy, but later falls out with the State and starts to use the same methods against its former ally. During World War II the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army was allied with the British, but during the Malayan Emergency, members of its successor, the Malayan Races Liberation Army, were branded terrorists by the British. More recently, Ronald Reagan and others in the American administration frequently called the Afghan Mujahideen freedom fighters during their war against the Soviet Union, yet twenty years later when a new generation of Afghan men are fighting against what they perceive to be a regime installed by foreign powers, their attacks are labelled terrorism by George W. Bush. Groups accused of terrorism usually prefer terms that reflect legitimate military or ideological action. Some groups, when involved in a "liberation" struggle, have been called terrorist by the Western governments or media. Later, these same persons, as leaders of the liberated nations, are called statesmen by similar organizations. Two examples are Nobel Peace Prize laureates Menachem Begin and Nelson Mandela.

Sometimes states that are close allies, for reasons of history, culture and politics, can disagree over whether members of a certain organization are terrorists. For example for many years some branches of the United States government refused to label members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as terrorists, while it was using methods against one of the United States' closest allies (Britain) that Britain branded as terrorist attacks. This was highlighted by the Quinn v. Robinson case.

Many times the term "terrorism" and "extremism" are interchangeably used. However, there is a significant difference between the two. Terrorism essentially threat or act of physical violence. Extremism involves using non-physical instruments to mobilise minds to achieve political or ideological ends. For instance, Al Qaeda is involved in terrorism. The Iranian revolution of 1979 is a case of extremism. A global research report An Inclusive World (2007) asserts that extremism poses a more serious threat than terrorism in the decades to come.

For these and other reasons, media outlets wishing to preserve a reputation for impartiality are extremely careful in their use of the term.
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